** Happy Birthday, America **
UPDATE -- fun with flamingoes in North Dakota
What a pleasant surprise to wake up and look out my front window and see that I was "Flamingoed"!
A local youth group is using this as a fundraising project, and someone had honored me by donating to have them on my yard a couple days before they move on to the next site. It's quite an attraction to passersby!
Earlier this spring, I was also surprised to find a light colored flamingo in my flower garden. (It is a tin sculpture used often in gardens now.) "Fred" had flown here from Alabama.
As a Northerner, I was interested in learning that flamingoes lose their pink color if kept in captivity, such as zoos or botanical gardens. Also of interest is the fact that they eat algae, so my birdbath should be kept clean!
I wonder what will fly in next? A cuckoo?
UPDATE -- a summer landscaping marathon
I imagine this is the feeling a marathoner gets as he crosses the finish line -- exhaustion, followed by a great feeling of accomplishment.
When we built the new house, I knew this would be the "Summer Of Landscaping." We had planted some grass last fall, but that's all we had time for before winter came. When this spring came, there were so many projects I wanted to get done, I didn't know where to start! We wanted a patio, plants and rocks around the house, trees on the boulevard, apple trees, and a garden. Over the last couple of months, we made it all happen!
We planned to do a paver patio on our own, so I designed a square main part, with a partial circle fire pit area, and a sidewalk to the garage. I priced out the materials at Menards and was just about ready to do it. Then our neighbors across the street had a poured, stamped concrete patio done by Concrete Concepts, and I decided to get an estimate from them. Since the price wasn't much more than the price of the pavers alone, it didn't take me long to decide that was a better choice than a lot of backbreaking work by myself.
Plus, that freed my time to work on the next project, planting some trees! We needed to put in six boulevard trees and had a small list that Moorhead allows. I liked the look of the lindens better, but the New Horizon elms grow faster. As I talked to Ole's Nursery owner, I decided to do some of each, eventually going with two lindens and four elms. Jolene wanted Honeycrisp apple trees, so we got two of them, too.
Those of you who remember history class may remember that Moorhead used to be the bottom of ancient glacial Lake Agassiz, which gives us some of the densest clay soil possible. That made the digging pretty tough, and since the soil holds moisture so well, two of the elms died, likely from overwatering. I recently replaced them with a couple more! The apple trees were planted in the back yard, near the girls' playset.
On a Saturday with nothing else to do, we decided it was time to put edging around the areas where we wanted rock and wood mulch. It took me four trips to get the 500 interlocking pavers that I needed. So while I delivered pavers, Jolene and the girls started digging out the areas I'd marked. We went around the house, around each tree, around the utility box areas, and we made a small flower bed between the two larger trees that we planted last year.
With all the edging in, next up was a load of rock. I ordered a load of 2-8 inch rock, which ended up consisting of mostly bigger rocks. Rocks that size are impossible to shovel, so I moved a 12-yard load of big rocks, one at a time, into the wheelbarrow, one at a time out of the wheelbarrow. We filled in around the trees and utility boxes first. Then we made a secondary rock border about two feet wide just inside the paver border all the way around the house.
While I was working on the rock, the patio guys came and excavated and poured our patio. They were fun guys to have around and did an incredible job! However, because of the slope of my yard, they had to leave about a 20 inch step down off the outer edge, which would be more work for me to fill in!
I wasn't ready for dirt yet, though, since I wanted to finish around the house first. I took another Menards trip, and filled up the Yukon with bags of brown wood mulch. The wood mulch filled in the rest of the area between the rock border and the house. Unfortunately, that first trip was only about a fourth of the amount I needed, so over the span of a few days, I kept at it. Luckily, I had great help, as Rylie and Brooklynn put a couple bags at a time in their wagon and hauled them to where I needed them.
By now I was getting pretty tired of landscaping, but still had some low spots that needed dirt, and I needed to fill in around the patio. So I ordered 12 yards of sandy loam! I used up some of the dirt filling in areas first. We decided to do a small retaining wall and flower bed around the patio, so that meant more landscaping blocks! I spent a Saturday morning setting the blocks, then filled in the inside with some of the dirt.
I still had quite a bit of dirt left, so we bought some used railroad ties to use as a border on our 8 by 12 foot garden. The rest of the dirt filled it in perfectly! By now it was mid-June and getting a little late to start a garden, so I put some flowers in one end and a bunch of tomato plants in the other end, to see if I can make anything grow in a shortened summer.
We've planted flowers around the patio and we've put some hostas, spireas, peonies, tiger lilies, hydrangeas, and other stuff I can't remember the names of, in the wood mulch areas. Eventually we may fill in some more, but this marathoner's crossed his last finish line for a while!
UPDATE -- devoted relationships began with polio epidemic
The object of this article is not to focus on the victim of circumstances, but it is meant to draw attention to the very unusual devotion and care of a brother to his sister. Also, the very same is true of a friend whose devotion and friendship has grown and continued throughout the years to the present time.
Pictured is Warren Peterson, brother of Lorraine (Peterson) Tabor (center) with Betty (Weiland) Droel. Warren very seldom missed a day when he did not visit his sister during a 4-year hospital and rehab stay after contracting polio during the epidemic.
Hardly ever a week went by that Betty missed visiting her. They then developed a unique communication system where Betty would furnish a shorthand notebook for Lorraine to write on each to return it to Betty who would answer on the back side of the pages to return. Often there were some unique additions from her cute little brother, Rich.
After the 4-year hospital stay, these relationships did not discontinue ... all through the years. It is a very unusual day when Warren does not call his sister and he visits often. Being "connected" did not stop for Betty, either ... just the method. Now communication is mostly by daily e-mails that contain news, pictures and The Bulletin.
If you've never heard of nuno felting, it is basically taking a cloth, such as a silk scarf, and adding a thin layer of wool, then slowly working them together until the wool fibers work their way down through the cloth, making it gather up tightly as the wool felts tighter together.
Click here for the rest of the story on Sarah's Where The Wild Ferns Grow blog.
UPDATE -- Chugach Foothills gets ready for 4th of July
It's a good thing it rains now and then! That's about the only way to get any face time with Miss Jerrianne during the gardening season, it seems. She's been digging weeds out of the "lasagna garden" beds, planting marigolds in them and mowing lawn to get grass clippings to mulch them. But first she had to make sure there weren't any dandelions setting seed in the lawn because she didn't want to plant dandelion seeds with the marigolds. The best part, she said, was with the lilacs in full bloom, the scented air in the gardens was just too marvelous for words. She said they smelled heavenly.
This week, she sheared off thousands of seedheads from the anemones so they would bloom again and so they wouldn't screen the geraniums from view. The blue irises are still blooming, but they are almost done and the seedpods needed to be snipped off. The bluets are taking over for the irises, to maintain the red, white and blue colors in the Pioneer Drive median. On Sunday, if the rain has stopped, the "flower ladies" will plant 13 American flags among the red, white and blue flowers for the 4th of July.
Next week will be lawn mowing and weeding and weedwhacking and pulling invasive weeds. Birdvetch tries to take over the gardens, the park and the boulevards along the streets in the Scenic Foothills neighborhoods. She says it has to go. Well, Mai Tai and I will be right here and if it rains she is welcome to join us for cat naps. You won't catch us out there getting mosquito bit and pulling birdvetch in the rain. We're very comfortable right here ... as long as she remembers to serve up our kitty crunchies on time.
Day to DayR
It was so wonderful having Marlene, Rich, Kimberly, Whitney and Mark stop in this afternoon. I'm not sure what Rich thought of the fact that I made him grill their own burgers. He didn't grumble, though, and he did a great job. I did manage to pursuade them to gather for a picture to share with all of you.
This past week, Becky and I met Jayce's Grandma Judy Arens, so he could visit with her and also see his siblings.
They had a wonderful time together, swimming and getting to know one another better. It was his first time to meet the two younger boys and they adored Jayce, by the sounds of it.
I also want to share the family picture of Wyatt, Jolene, Rylie, Brooklynn and Camryn at Jolene's brother Joel's wedding.
Let's play a guessing game: we will run a picture of someone of the subscribers or staff members of our e-magazine. Tell us who you think it is -- we will let you know who was the first to guess it right -- and the correct guess -- in the following week's Bulletin.
Last week's Guess picture
Editors' Note: Correct guesses appear in bold face type and incorrect guesses in normal type ... generally in the order we receive them, so the first guess received is on top.
Hopefully, I know who is on this picture: my mom and dad, Henry and Lenore Pfingsten, Harold and Carol (Dake) Printz, their three boys and Aunty Blanche (Dake) Miller. I think it was the time when Uncle Jim, Aunty Blanche and my parents went on a trip to Texas. Mom and Dad didn't get to travel much, but I think I do remember them talking about this one. Hopefully, the long term memory is still working.
Anita Pfingsten Weiland
That is my brother-in-law Henry Pfingsten and his wife (my sister) Lenore Miller Pfingsten, Carol and Harold Printz and Blanche Dake Miller in back row. Not sure about the boys in front but they maybe the Printz family.
Thanks for the great work you are doing with The Bulletin.
Don, Doug, Mother, and myself made a visit to that same home in about 1975. The boys in the front are Cody, Eric, and Justin, if I remember correctly. I think they lived near Alamosa, Colorado. We had a lovely two-day stay, then Mom stayed at their place while we other three went on to visit the California Anderson relatives. A week or so later we came back and picked my mother up to head home with us to Minnesota. What a nice trip -- what lovely hospitable people at both destinations!
Dorothy Dake Anderson
I thrilled to read the guesses of the picture from last week. Now this week, I know Henry and Lenore Pfingsten and Blanche Miller, but the other family leaves me stumped. I am wondering if it just might be the offspring of Lois Dake.
This week's Guess picture
A series of recollections, of the five years when Bill and Lois Dake and their family lived in Minnesota, began with the episode in Bulletin 343. It's too soon to tell just how many parts there will be in this series, just after World War II. In Bulletin 349, I told more about polio (once called Infantile Paralysis) via two links, Polio and Sister Kenny, to minimize disruption of the narrative flow. Both documents are posted as a series of scanned images. We can't edit them or correct typos and they will not respond to font changes or printer settings as regular Bulletin pages do.
August 1949 -- More Work, Work, Work!
I lost my chance to balance my budget before I really got a good start.
Everything seemed to be working my way. I got there early enough (knowing the boss of the crew helped, too). I grabbed the very first cutter, where the chute and belt comes into the building. And then, to put the frosting on the cake, one of last year's very strongest, best feeders asked if she could be on the other half of my cutter crew. Being Blanche wasn't there, I was thrilled to get her.
She pulled the corn down for my side and I pulled it down for hers. We both were pretty good at that job and could easily keep the holder full of corn on the cob to feed on the belt traveling through the blades (behind the guard) on my right side and for me at the same time to feed the belt on the opposite set of guarded blades. We were never in danger of the cutters as the corn was fed by our hands through a guard, which fed it into the cutter blades.
We were into the swing of it at the end of the first day we worked together. She was a big, heavy lady, and a great partner to work with. She was one that Blanche had suggested I try to get on that special cutter and I trusted Blanche's judgment. After the first night, we went over and looked at the machine that counted our corn and saw that we were doing a pretty good bonus rate, so to celebrate we had a cup of coffee at the Canteen. It seemed to me that we might make a fabulous team.
The second night started off a little slower, as the trucks had not all arrived from the field in time for the huskers and clean up belt to get the husked corn to our area. When the corn arrived in our area, it was dumped into the holder all helter skelter, which meant that our crews had to really scramble to get the corn down the chute and into our holder.
We practically had to climb up into the chute to pull the corn down. I was yanking and pulling when something seemed to get in my way. I pulled my right hand out to see what it was, looked at my hand and saw that my finger next to the thumb was dangling down from the second knuckle ... oh, no need to faint ... not a drop of blood nor a single bit of skin was torn ... but nevertheless, I could not move the finger. It just dangled there.
I signaled to the forelady that we needed help. She came and when she saw what the trouble was, she took over for me, sent me to the nurse's station. She had me stop and show Red McCalla as I left so that he could get a replacement for me. So that was the full time I got to work where there was a decent bonus.
The nurse put a splint on the finger and told me that I would have to see Dr. Greenfield in the morning (at his office) ... and then come and let her know if I could work anymore.
So I finally met Vonnie's boss -- Dr. Greenfield. He looked over the situation. He had some rather down to earth advice. He said we would put it in a metal splint with an upturned end, which held the tip of the finger up; that let the torn muscles search for each other and grow back together. And he said I could wear a rubber glove over it and easily work on the cut corn sorter ... that is the job for the old ladies. Nobody cares how fast you work. You use a small metal rake in one gloved hand to pick debris (little pieces of cob, smut, silk, and any other foreign substance) out of the corn as it feeds into the machines that feed the corn into cans. We work on the second floor and the filler is on the first floor.
So I became one of the lowest paid members of the corn pack! But I did not complain, as I was very grateful that Red found a job for me at all. I could have easily been sent home and told to come back next year. I must admit we "old ladies" get lots of nice consideration. I love being able to sit on a stool by the belt line; it beats standing in the cold water they use to keep the floors clean. And we do get to chat a little, as it isn't nearly as noisy in our area. So even though it is boring, it does earn basic pay!
But there is one thing I do regret: I would have loved to be one of the top 10 bonus earners. And I am afraid my chance of having a big enough fund to last for my full year is very unlikely, indeed. But my mom tells me, "Where there is a will, there is a way." It is up to me to find that way!
Southeast Asia Extravaganza 2009
The Gibbon Experience
Wetness was a small inconvenience to pay for the privilege of spending time in the Bokeo reserve. The forest is absolutely enchanting. Though the dry season was just ending, it was lush, filled with magnificent trees and other plants. Some looked like they'd been designed by Dr. Seuss, with fantastic leaves, thorns, and flowers.
I was also quite dazzled by the butterflies. Nowhere else have I seen so many with such stunning arrays of colors and wing patterns. Large insects were a theme here; the butterflies were the size of dessert plates, and I met a beetle as big as my palm. The cicadas were as loud as power tools! The Danish girls wondered what was under construction so deep in the forest; they were incredulous when we informed them that insects were responsible for the din. A symphony of birds provided constant background music, but I only managed to see a few. And though we never spotted one of the forest's famous black crested gibbons, we heard them whooping above us one morning while we hiked. Amazing!
After a few hours of hiking, we reached our home for the night. It was perched around 100 meters off the ground in a colossal tree! To reach our house, we strapped into harnesses and zip-lined along a network of cables strung through the forest's canopy. Whizzing from tree to tree was a blast! It was the closest approximation of flying I'll experience until I learn to transmogrify into a winged creature.
Our tree house was quite cozy. In consisted of a large platform with open walls sheltered by a thatched roof. We had a makeshift kitchen with a propane stove, a sink, and a cooler stocked with mangoes and lychee fruit. On a lower platform we found a bathroom with an astonishing view. There was even a shower for those who dared to step on the grated floor that provided a dizzying glimpse of the ground below. Our meals were cooked in a kitchen on the ground and then zip-lined in to us by the talented cook. A basket of sticky rice and platters of stir-fried mushrooms, chicken with ginger, stewed tomatoes, and stir-fried morning glory magically appeared on our table at dinner time. Delicious!
The next day we zip-lined down to the kitchen for breakfast and then hiked to a tree house situated a few miles away. There we were delighted to find an equally charming home in the canopy and a great network of cables for an afternoon of zip-line fun. After we tired of doing superhero impressions, we settled in for the night. It rained torrentially. My leech dreams were interrupted a few hours before dawn by the sound of lightening cracking and loud thunder. The storm was intense, with flashes appearing several times per minute followed closely by deafening thunder. I was not comforted to find myself trapped in the highest tree around at this point... My life flashed before my eyes, the storm passed, and I awoke at sunrise to another lovely day.
Photo Editor's Note: Kjirsten hasn't posted any photos from the Gibbon Experience because she lost her camera. Perhaps she'll tell us more about that when she wraps up her story, which continues next week.
Celebrations & Observances
This Week's Special Days
This Week's Birthdays
This Week's Anniversaries
More July Birthdays
July Special Days
Miss Hetty's Mailbox
Dear Miss Hetty:
I haven't contributed to The Bulletin in a while, so thought I'd send a line... I'm working in the Charlotte area this year with Connie and Evelyn. Preparations for our conventions start August 10th, so the summer will slip by fast! We had almost two weeks of temperatures in the high 90s, so we've been glad for cooler weather this week in the 80s!
I had the privilege recently of going out to Spokane to visit my Holman relatives and also attend the Post Falls convention while I was there! I met a family that are cousins to us from the McCorkell side; his great-grandmother and my great-grandfather were brother and sister!
I'll enclose a picture of Evelyn, Connie, and me with my birthday dessert (Starbucks Mocha Java Chip ice cream!) yesterday.
Thanks for all your hard work on The Bulletin!
I want to send you a big "Thank You" for the birthday card. As the years keep on flying by, I just seem to enjoy my birthdays more and more. I got to spend my birthday and the rest of the weekend with some very dear friends, camping. Oh how much fun a person can have, no matter how old they are. But then again you know me -- I can have fun no matter where I go or whom I am with. I can not wait for the next year to see what that will bring me. Thank you again.
Thank you for the birthday e-card. It was sweet and had great music. I had a wonderful birthday and will send an update.
Merna Morgan Hellevang
Keep Us Posted!
Please drop Miss Hetty a line and tell us who, and what, we've missed. And how about a report (photos welcome) of YOUR special celebration?
+ LETTERS TO THE EDITORS?
The Little Beeps last week asked readers to identify the person in the picture on Duddo's T-shirt to win a prize: a music CD by the author, Douglas Anderson. A day later, Douglas reported the winner: Melanie Lehtola. How fun! I am glad someone got it ... and who better! Well, I had guessed that it was Charles Dickens ... looked like him from our Author Game ... but Doug told me even if it had been the right guess, the Matriarch editor cannot be a "guesser." Woe is me! --The Matriarch
My brainy cousin Melanie Lehtola returned the correct answer to win the prize ... which was: British explorer David Livingstone. I think people may have thought the picture had something to do with the cartoon (or anything else) and that threw them off a little, but I wanted to make it hard. Not hard enough for Melanie, though! I thought it would take longer than that for someone to crack it!
I am SERIOUSLY excited to have won! Six to eight weeks seems waaaaay too long to wait ... can I purchase an expedited service? (And I'm still thinking the picture looks a lot like Great Grandpa Dake.)
Thought I'd take a guess at the mystery picture on Duddo's shirt in The Bulletin. My guess is Mark Twain before his hair turned white. I don't really think that's right but I can't think of a better guess. Either way, I'm enjoying all of your comics in The Bulletin! Hope you keep them up!
Thanks for the guess, Weston! Unfortunately, a correct answer has already been returned: it was David Livingstone, British explorer. Pretty random, but I wanted to make it hard. I had no idea that a correct answer would be returned in one day! I have grossly underestimated The Bulletin audience, I'm afraid. Thanks also for your kind words of encouragement. I hope to keep them weekly, that's why I "down-sized" them. --Douglas
Wow, I never would have come up with that guess, and I'm surprised someone else did! I'll have to step it up for any future challenges. Have a good week! --Weston
Dear Miss Kitty,
Thanks for the Rhubarb-Raspberry Betty recipe. We need simplicity like this in our ever increasing complications of life. Adding tapioca is a great idea!
Last Week's Bulletin Review JKL
What a lovely remembrance for Marian Miller! All who knew her would value that kindly account of her past and present. No one can wish she was back to endure any longer in the health condition she suffered.
We do think of Steve, who so diligently cared for her and kept her in their home. Till death do us part -- in sickness and in health. Surely they fulfilled those vows to the fullest.
Harlie Mae arrived, making another baby girl in The Bulletin family. I had to smile when Memory Lane commented on LeRoy and Vonnie as "the kids." Then, in the very same issue, is the news of a great granddaughter being born.
The happy family that appeared next on the screen was such a thrill, seeing little Abby with her mom and dad for Father's Day, and her mom's birthday. Thank you for keeping us informed about these events and the darling pictures of the children as they grow. Lexie didn't stay a baby for long, either.
I loved the story of the little wood ducklings. Of course, they would be welcome and "mothered" at the Ashby farm.
I tried to find a favorite of the Bitzidoodles in her blog this time, but couldn't settle on any one. I think the closest was "Whatzis."
At Good Earth restaurant they have a delicious hummus snack dip served with olive oil. I was impressed with the recipe for it in Sarah's Update. Looks pretty simple.
Happy Harry and Scout have all the attention and pampering any animals could ever hope for. A brand new ox cart. Now that took some engineering and time, which LTD must have had. We need an update on how the animals reacted to someone riding in the cart.
Miss Kitty took pity on us again, explaining just how and why Miss Jerrianne is so busy and unable to write, herself. I guess I have to admit I do like Miss Kitty's updates, as they always give us the facts without leaving out any good parts. Miss Kitty tells it like it is, without fluff or fuss. Here is a quote from the web site included in Miss Kitty's fruit subject:
Baking the fruit instead of stewing it allows it to keep its shape and its lustrous color. The raspberries looked like fat jewels among the chunks of rhubarb. The bread cubes, toasted and crunchy and rich, were textural marvels against the silky fruit.
Now, doesn't that sound absolutely tantalizing?
Thanks, Miss Kitty. I do think it's worth a try.
We have one plant of chives in our garden. Left over from when Roy's Edith had a huge, prolific garden. I do not have a green thumb, so Roy has put most of the garden into lawn.
The deadnettle looks beautiful, but it must not be anything to get too close to. (Unlike stinging nettles, the stinging part is "dead" in deadnettles. They won't hurt you the way stinging nettles do. --Photo Ed.)
The Memory Lane this time was different. Very interesting to have the paragraphs about certain people and families. I have heard of the de-tasseling project a lot of young folks take part in from here in Minnesota and go down to the Iowa farms. It is not popular, but lucrative. They have great times, being so many young folks get together to help with that work.
I was disappointed not to find out whether you got the bonus you had hoped for in putting through more ears of corn than is average. Not a pleasant working environment, but you can forget that as you see the money jar fill up towards college expenses. Of course, there is always a next chapter of Memory Lane that may have some of those details answered.
The Travelogue was still in Laos. The Gibbon Experience held my attention for way too long. I had to click on every link, and found it very interesting, and yet alarming. Alarming as to thinking of those who follow through with this experience, as Kjirsten must have done, from her story. The leech wounds alone about sickened me, but brave, adventurous Kjirsten plowed right on to the end, and thank you for sharing it with us.
Thanks to Miss Hetty's mailbox, we got to see that great picture of the fellows with their arms full of children.
When I read the letter from Lorraine Tabor in the LTTE section, I almost got tearful. I am aware of what an exhausting, painful effort it is for Lorraine to do any typing at all, and she wrote such a long, detailed letter about the new machine being made to help folks breathe. It is almost more than she can endure to help with that project, but it is so important to her to have them finalize it so it can be used. Her breathing is so labored. She is very weak, bedsores, no appetite, but she still smiles on and is humorous and happy.
Oh, please spare us that aren't so bright, Doug. How can I recognize the fellow on your shirt? Impossible. Also, I am wondering just what a garter snake and paint thinner have to do with tennis balls? I could well understand the girls saying boys are different! I like the Little Beep's glasses.
The Quotation for the day was easy to understand, though. The Dandelions in full, gorgeous bloom covering the lawn where you had just fought until you thought you got rid of them. Thriving is the word. Roy hates them in his yard, but even though his yard doesn't have many, the neighbors' have gone to seed that has blown onto our lawn to reseed for next year.
I had better come to the end of this now, before this day is done entirely. This is Sunday evening, and it has been a big day. It was fun to have pizza supper with Rich and Verlaine Weiland, and soon dawns another busy week ahead.
Thank you Editor Dorothy, and thank you Photo Editor Jerrianne, for all you put into The Bulletin again, getting it to us right on time, with all the variety of stories and pictures included.
To search a name in Who's Who or Who's Where: click on the link to open the page, then use CONTROL F on a PC or COMMAND F on a Mac. To search for a second occurrence of the name, use CONTROL G on a PC or COMMAND G on a Mac. (This works on ANY web page with text, unless the text is converted to an image. Chances are, it works in your e-mail, too.) HINT: Search by first name only, as most entries list the family name once but do not repeat the last name for each family member. In Who's Where you can search on state or city names, too.
Quotation for the day: Whenever the work threatens to overwhelm me, I tell myself: this is just one year, just one book, and you're just one person. Breathe. Then I eat a cookie. --Luisa Weiss, thewednesdaychef.com
EDITOR'S POLICY: If you wish to subscribe to The Bulletin, simply send me a statement of that fact. If you wish to keep receiving it I hope you will contribute to one of the columns that are running in this family epistle (at least occasionally!). My e-mail address is email@example.com
This Bulletin is copyright Dorothy M. Anderson; the contents are also copyrighted by the authors and photographers and used with their permission, and the contents are not to be used for any commercial purposes without the explicit consent of the creators.